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Humanities - Spring 1

Mountains and earthquakes


During the first half term, we will be learning about how mountains are formed, where they are located and how tourism affects mountain regions. We will also discover the impact of earthquakes and how people prepare themselves.




What is a Mountain?

The dictionary defines a mountain as that which is ‘higher and steeper than a hill’.

A mountain is a landform that rises high above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. They are made from rocks and earth.

Generally, mountains are higher than 600 metres. Those less than 600 metres are called hills.

Andes    Image result for mountains ks2


Image result for mountains ks2


What do Mountains look like?

Mountains usually have steep, sloping sides and sharp or slightly rounded ridges and peaks.

Mountains can be rocky and barren. Some have trees growing on their sides and very high mountains have snow on their peaks.

Some common features of mountains include the following:

  • the summit, or the top of a mountain;
  • the slope, or side of the mountain; and
  • a very steep valley between young mountains, known as a gorge.


Where are Mountains found?

Mountains exist on every continent and even beneath our great oceans.

Did you know?

Some of the highest mountains are at the bottom of the sea. Hawaii is at the top of a volcanic mountain in the Pacific Ocean. More than half the mountain is below water.

The largest range of mountains is in the Atlantic Ocean.

Mountains cover one-fifth of the earth’s land surface, and occur in 75 percent of the world’s countries.

Well known mountain ranges include the Alps, Pyrenees, Himalayas, Rockies and Andes.


What is a mountain range?

Mountain ranges are long chains or groups of mountains. Ranges are usually 1,000 or more miles long.

The Rocky Mountains and the Himalayan Mountains are examples of mountain ranges.


How many people live on mountains?

Mountains are home to approximately one-tenth of the world’s people





Although the ground we walk on seems completely solid, the Earth is actually made up of huge pieces of flat rock called tectonic plates. These move very, very slowly, and places where they meet are called faults.

When these plates rub together, the movement forces waves of energy to come to the earth's surface. We feel this on the Earth’s surface as an earthquake. Earthquakes can sometimes be nothing more than small tremors or shakes, but sometimes they can cause damage and devastation.

Earthquakes can make buildings fall down and set off landslides, as well as having many other deadly effects. An earthquake that occurs at the bottom of the sea can push water upwards and create massive waves called tsunamis.


    Image result for earthquakes ks2


Image result for earthquakes ks2